Entries tagged with peewee
On Monday of this week I merged in the
3.0a branch of peewee, a lightweight Python ORM, marking the
official 3.0.0 release
of the project. Today as I'm writing this, the project is at 3.0.9, thanks to
so many helpful people submitting issues and bug reports. Although this was
pretty much a complete rewrite of the 2.x codebase, I have tried to maintain
backwards-compatibility for the public APIs.
In this post I'll discuss a bit about the motivation for the rewrite and some changes to the overall design of the library. If you're thinking about upgrading, check out the changes document and, if you are wondering about any specific APIs, take a spin through the rewritten (and much more thorough) API documentation.
SQLite's write lock and pysqlite's clunky transaction state-machine are a toxic combination for multi-threaded applications. Unless you are very diligent about keeping your write transactions as short as possible, you can easily wind up with one thread accidentally holding a write transaction open for an unnecessarily long time. Threads that are waiting to write will then have a much greater likelihood of timing out while waiting for the lock, giving the illusion of poor performance.
In this post I'd like to share a very effective technique for performing writes to a SQLite database from multiple threads.
In this post I'll share a simple code snippet you can use to perform optimistic locking when updating model instances. I've intentionally avoided providing an implementation for this in peewee, because I don't believe it will be easy to find a one-size-fits-all approach to versioning and conflict resolution. I've updated the documentation to include the sample implementation provided here, however.
Back in September, word started getting around trendy programming circles about a new file that had appeared in the SQLite fossil repo named json1.c. I originally wrote up a post that contained some gross hacks in order to get pysqlite to compile and work with the new
json1 extension. With the release of SQLite 3.9.0, those hacks are no longer necessary.
SQLite 3.9.0 is a fantastic release. In addition to the much anticipated
json1 extension, there is a new version of the full-text search extension called
fts5 improves performance of complex search queries and provides an out-of-the-box BM25 ranking implementation. You can also boost the significance of particular fields in the ranking. I suggest you check out the release notes for the full list of enhancements
This post will describe how to compile SQLite with support for
fts5. We'll use the new SQLite library to compile a python driver so we can use the new features from python. Because I really like
apsw, I've included instructions for building both of them. Finally, we'll use peewee ORM to run queries using the
In this post I'll describe how to implement tagging with a relational database. What I mean by tagging are those little labels you see at the top of this blog post, which indicate how I've chosen to categorize the content. There are many ways to solve this problem, and I'll try to describe some of the more popular methods, as well as one unconventional approach using bitmaps. In each section I'll describe the database schema, try to list the benefits and drawbacks, and present example queries. I will use Peewee ORM for the example code, but hopefully these examples will easily translate to your tool-of-choice.
In my continuing adventures with SQLite, I had the idea of writing a RESTful search server utilizing SQLite's full-text search extension. You might think of it as a poor man's ElasticSearch – a very, very poor man.
So what is this project? Well, the idea I had was that instead of building out separate search implementations for my various projects, I would build a single lightweight search service I could use everywhere. I really like SQLite (and have previously blogged about using SQLite's full-text search with Python), and the full-text search extension is quite good, so it didn't require much imagination to take the next leap and expose it as a web-service.
Read on for more details.
For fun, I thought I'd write a post describing how to build a blog using Flask, a Python web-framework. Building a blog seems like, along with writing a Twitter-clone, a quintessential experience when learning a new web framework. I remember when I was attending a five-day Django tutorial presented by Jacob Kaplan-Moss, one of my favorite projects we did was creating a blog. After setting up the core of the site, I spent a ton of time adding features and little tweaks here-and-there. My hope is that this post will give you the tools to build a blog, and that you have fun customizing the site and adding cool new features.
In this post we'll cover the basics to get a functional site, but leave lots of room for personalization and improvements so you can make it your own. The actual Python source code for the blog will be a very manageable 200 lines.
Who is this post for?
This post is intended for beginner to intermediate-level Python developers, or experienced developers looking to learn a bit more about Python and Flask. For the mother of all Flask tutorials, check out Miguel Grinberg's 18 part Flask mega-tutorial.
Here are the features:
- Entries are formatted using markdown.
- Entries support syntax highlighting, optionally using Github-style triple-backticks.
- Automatic video / rich media embedding using OEmbed.
- Very nice full-text search thanks to SQLite's FTS extension.
- Draft posts.
This post is a follow-up to my post about querying the top related item by group. In this post we'll go over ways to retrieve the top N related objects by group using the Peewee ORM. I've also presented the SQL and the underlying ideas behind the queries, so you can translate them to whatever ORM / query layer you are using.
Retrieving the top N per group is a pretty common task, for example:
- Display my followers and their 10 most recent tweets.
- In each of my inboxes, list the 5 most recent unread messages.
- List the sections of the news site and the three latest stories in each.
- List the five best sales in each department.
In this post we'll discuss the following types of solutions:
- Solutions involving
- Solutions involving
- Window functions
- Postgresql lateral joins
In this post I'd like to share some techniques for querying the top item by group using the Peewee ORM. For example,
- List the most recent tweet by each of my followers.
- List the highest severity open bug for each of my open source projects.
- List the latest story in each section of a news site.
This is a common task, but one that can be a little tricky to implement in a single SQL query. To add a twist, we won't use window functions or other special SQL constructs, since they aren't supported by SQLite. If you're interested in finding the top N items per group, check out this follow-up post.
SQLite is an embedded database, which means that instead of running as a separate server process, the actual database engine resides within the application. This makes it possible for the database to call directly into the application when it would be beneficial to add some low-level, application-specific functionality. SQLite provides numerous hooks for inserting user code and callbacks, and, through virtual tables, it is even possible to construct a completely user-defined table. By extending the SQL language with Python, it is often possible to express things more elegantly than if we were to perform calculations after the fact.
In this post I'll describe how to extend SQLite with Python, adding functions and aggregates that will be callable directly from any SQL queries you execute. We'll wrap up by looking at SQLite's virtual table mechanism and seeing how to expose a SQL interface over external data sources.